Section  Use of English

Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)


Happy people work differently. They’re more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence  1   firms work, too.

Companies located in places with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper.     2   , firms in happy places spend more on R&D (research & development). That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer term thinking  3    for making investments for the future.

The researchers wanted to know if the   4     and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would   5    the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities’ average happiness,    6   by Gallup polling, with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.

7 enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were    8    . But is it really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities 9    why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researchers controlled for various   10   that might make firms more likely to invest — like size, industry, and sales — and for indicators that a place was    11   to live in, like growth in wages or population. The link between happiness and investment generally  12   even after accounting for these things.

The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors  13    to “less codified decision making process” and the possible presence of “younger and less    14   managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.’” The relationship was    15   stronger in places where happiness was spread more   16   . Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.

17    this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least    18   at that possibility. It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help   19   how executives think about the future. Just ask anyone who’s spent time in Silicon Valley. “It surely seems plausible that [happy people] would be more forward-thinking and creative and    20  R&D more than the average,” said one researcher.

1. [A]. where [B]. how [C]. why [D]. when

2.[ A.] In return [B]. In particular [C]. In contrast [D]. In conclusion

3.[ A]. sufficient [B]. famous [C]. perfect [D]. necessary

4. [A]. individualism [B]. realism [C]. optimism [D]. modernism

5. [A]. echo [B]. miss [C]. spoil [D]. change

6. [A]. imagined [B]. assumed [C]. measured [D]. invented

7. [A]. Sure [B]. Odd [C]. Unfortunate [D]. Often

8.[ A]. headquartered [B]. advertised [C]. overtaxed [D]. divided

9. [A]. overstate [B]. summarize [C]. explain [D]. emphasize

10. [A]. factors [B]. stages [C]. levels [D]. methods

11.[A]desirable [B]reliable [C]sociable [D]reputable

12.[A]resumed [B]held [C]emerged [D]broke

13.[A]assign [B]attribute  [C]transfer  [D]compare

14.[A]serious [B]experienced  [C]ambitious  [D]civilized

15.[A]thus [B]instead  [C]also    [D]never

16.[A]rapidly [B]directly  [C]regularly  [D]equally

17.[A]While [B]Since      [C]After  [D]Until

18.[A]arrives [B]jumps  [C]hints  [D]strikes

19.[A]share [B]simplify  [C]rediscover  [D]shape

20.[A]pray for [B]give away  [C]send out  [D]lean towards


Section  Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points


Text 1

It’s true that high-school coding classes aren’t essential for learning computer science in college. Student without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie mellon’s school of computer science.

However, Cortina said, early exposure brings benefits. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it’s not just a confusing, endless string of letters and

numbers, but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.

Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive less the experienced or determined students away.

The flatiron school, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding boot camps that’s become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but ‘we try to gear lessons toward things they are interested in,’ said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on my mood.

The students in the Flatiron class are unlikely to drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the Ruby on Rails language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn—how to think logically through a problem and organize the results—apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.

Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computer-in their pockets, in their offices, in their homes- for the rest of the rest of lives. The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want-the earlier they learn that have the power to do that-the better.

21.Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to  .

A. complete future job training

B. remodel the way of thinking

C. formulate logical hypotheses

D. perfect artwork production

22. In delivering lessons for high-schoolers, Flatiron has considered their        .

A. interest

B. experience

C. career prospects

D. academic background

23. Deboarh Seehorn believes that the skills learned flatiron will         .

A. enable student to make big quick money

B. need improving when student look for jobs

C. have to be upgraded when new technologies come

D. help student learn other computer languages

24. According to the last paragraph, flatiron student are expected to        .

A. bring forth innovative computer technologies

B. stay longer in the information technology industry

C. become better prepared for digitalized world

D. compete with a future army of programmers

25. The word ‘coax’ (Line 4,Para 6) is closest in meaning to        .

A. challenge

B. persuade

C. frighten

D. misguide


Text 2

Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens-a kind of bird living on Stretching grasslands-once lent red to the often grey landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species’ historic range.

The crash was a major reason the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decided to formally list the bird as “threatened.” The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation,” said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as “endangered,” a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats. But Ashe and others argued that the “threatened” tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservation approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action, and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken’s habitat.

Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowners or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range-wide management plan requires Individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat. The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat. USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years. And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let “states remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species,” Ashe said.

Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric. Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court. Not surprisingly, industry groups and states generally argue it goes too far; environmentalists say it doesn’t go far enough. “The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction,” says biologist Jay Lininger.

26. The major reason for listing the lesser prairie chicken as threatened is        .

A. the insistence of private landowners

B. its drastically decreased population

C. the underestimate of the grassland acreage

D. a desperate appeal from some biologists

27. The ”threatened” tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it        .

A. was a give-in to governmental pressure

B. would involve fewer agencies in action

C. granted less federal regulatory power

D. went against conservation policies

28. it can be learned from paragraph 3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they        .

A. agree to pay a sum for compensation

B. volunteer to set up an equally big habitat

C. offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job

D. promise to raise funds for USFWS operations

29.According to Ashe, the leading role in managing the species is        .

A. the federal government

B. the wildlife agencies

C. the landowners

D. the states

30. Jay Lininger would most likely support        .

A. the win-win rhetoric

B. the plan under challenge

C. environmental groups

D. industry groups


Text 3

That everyone's too busy these days is a cliche. But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully. There's never any time to read.

What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques don't seem sufficient. The web's full of articles offering tips on making time to read :”Give up TV” or “Carry a book with you at all times.” But in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn't work. Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else you're so exhausted that a challenging book's the last thing you need. The modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, “is overwhelmingly inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is that one is actually inclined to interruption,” Deep reading requires not just time , but a special kind of time which can't be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.

In fact, “becoming more efficient” is part of the problem. Thinking of time as a resource to be maximized means you approach it instrumentally, judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal. Immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk inefficiency, goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it in as a to-do list item and you'll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the most fulfilling kind.” The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt,” writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time, and “we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes)as they pass, for if they get by without being filled,  we will have wasted them.” No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book.

So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for reading. You'd think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set. But in fact, Eberle notes. Such ritualistic behaviour helps us “step outside time's flow” into “soul time”, You could limit distractions by reading only physical books, or on single-purpose e-readers.”  Carry a book with you at all times” can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business, before dropping back down. On a really good day,  it no longer feels as if you're “making time to read,” but just reading, and making time for everything else.

31. The usual time-management techniques don’t work because 

A. what they can offer does not ease the modern mind

B. what people often forget is carrying a book with them

C. what challenging requires cannot be guaranteed

D what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed

32. The “empty bottles” metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to_ 

A. update their to-do lists

B. make passing time fulfilling

C. carry their plans through

D. pursue carefree reading

33. Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps 

A. promote ritualistic reading

B. encourage the efficiency mind-set

C. develop online reading habits

D. achieve immersive reading

34. “Carry a book with you at all times” can work if       .

A. reading becomes your primary business of the day

B. all the daily business has been promptly dealt with

C. you are able to drop back to business after reading

D. time can be evenly split for reading and business

35. The best title for this text could be            

A. How to Enjoy Easy Reading

B. How to Set Reading Goals

C. How to Find Time Read

D. How to Read Extensively


Text 4

Against a backdrop of drastic changes in economy and population structure, younger Americans are drawing a new 21st-century road map to success, a latest poll has found. 

Across generational lines, Americans continue to prize many of the same traditional milestones of a successful life, including getting married, having children, owning a home, and retiring in their sixties. But while young and old mostly agree on what constitutes the finish line of a fulfilling life, they offer strikingly different paths for reaching it.

Young people who are still getting started in life were more likely than older adults to prioritize personal fulfillment in their work, to believe they will advance their careers most by regularly changing jobs,to favor communities with more public services and a faster pace of life, to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children, and to maintain that  children are best served by two parents working outside the home,the survey found.

From career to community and family,these contrasts suggest that in the aftermath 

of the searing Great Recession,those just staring out in life are defining priorities and expectations that will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects of American life,from consumer preferences to housing patterns to politics.

Young and old converge on one key point: Overwhelming majorities of both groups said they believe it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. While younger people are somewhat more optimistic than their elders about the prospects for those starting out today,big majorities in both groups believe those “just getting started in life” face a tougher climb than earlier generation in reaching such signpost achievements as securing a good-paying job,starting a family,managing debt,and finding affordable housing.

Pete Schneider considers the climb tougher today. Schneider,a 27-year-old auto technician from the Chicago suburbs,says he struggled to find a job after graduating from college. Even now that he is working steadily,he said,“I can’t afford to pay my monthly mortgage payments on my own,So I have to rent rooms out to people to make that happen. ” Looking back,he is struck that his parents  could provide a comfortable life for their children even though neither had completed collage when he was young.  “I still grew up in an upper middle-class home with parents who didn't have college degrees,” Schneider said , “I don’t think people are capable of  that anymore.”

36. One cross-generation mark of a successful life is      .

[A] having a family with children

[B] trying out different lifestyles

[C] working beyond retirement age

[D]setting up a profitable business

37. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that young people tend to      .

[A] favor a slower life pace

[B] hold an occupation longer

[C] attach importance to pre-marital finance

[D] give priority to childcare outside the home

38. The priorities and expectations defined by the young will      .

[A] depend largely on political preferences

[B] reach almost all aspects of American life

[C] focus on materialistic issues

[D] become increasingly clear

39. Both young and old agree that      .

[A] good-paying jobs are less available

[B] the old made more life achievements

[C] housing loans today are easy to obtain

[D]getting established is harder for the young

40. Which of the following is true about Schneider?

[A] He thinks his job as a technician quite challenging.

[B] His parents’ good life has little to do with a college degree.

[C] His parents believe working steadily is a must for success.

[D] He found a dream job after graduating from college.


Part B

Directions:Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A—G for each of the numbered paragraphs (41-45 ) There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)


[A] Be silly

[B] Ask for help

[C] Notice things

[D] Express your emotions

[E] Don’t over think it

[F] Be easily pleased

[G] Have fun


Act Your Shoe Size, Not Your Age

As adults, it seems that we are constantly pursuing happiness, often with mixed results. Yet children appear to have it down to an art — and for the most part they don’t need self-help books or therapy. Instead, they look after their well being instinctively, and usually more effectively than we do as grownups. Perhaps it’s time to learn few lessons from them.



What does a child do when he’s sad? He cries. When he’s angry? He shouts. Scared? Probably a bit of both. As we grow up, we learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and don’t dictate our behaviors, which is in many ways a good thing. But too often we take this process too far and end up suppressing emotions, especially negative ones. That’s about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us ill. What we need to do is find a way to acknowledge and express what we feel appropriately, and then – again, like children – move on.


A couple of Christmases ago, my youngest stepdaughter, who was nine years old at the time, got a Superman T-shirt for Christmas. It cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed, and couldn’t stop talking about it. Too often we believe that a new job, bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow us to finally be content, but the reality is these things have very little lasting impact on our happiness levels. Instead, being grateful for small things every day is a much better way to improve wellbeing



Have you ever noticed how much children laugh? If we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, we would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies, increase good hormones like endorphins, improve blood flow to our hearts and even have a greater chance of fighting off infection. All of which would, of course, have a positive effect on our happiness levels



The problem with being a grownup is that there’s an awful lot of serious stuff to deal with-work, mortgage payments, figuring out what to cook for dinner, But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it’s important that we schedule in time to enjoy the things we love. Those things might be social, sporting, creative or completely random (dancing around the living room, anyone?)—it doesn’t matter, so long as they’re enjoyable, and not likely to have negative side effects, such as drinking too much alcohol or going on a wild spending spree if you’re on a tight budget



Having said all of the above, it’s important to add that we shouldn’t try too hard to be happy. Scientists tell us this can backfire and actually have a negative Impact on our wellbeing. As the Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu is reported to have said; “Happiness is the absence of striving happiness.” And in that once more, we need to look to the example of our children, to whom happiness is not a goal bus a natural byproduct of the way they live.



Section  Translation

Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the following passage into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)


The supermarket is designed to lure customers into spending as much time as possible within its doors. The reason for this is simple: The longer you stay in the store, the more stuff you’ll see, and the more stuff you see, the more you’ll buy. And supermarkets contain a lot of stuff. The average supermarket, according to the Food Marketing Institute, carries some 44,000 different items, and many carry tens of thousands more. The sheer volume of available choice is enough to send shoppers into a state of information overload. According to brain-scan experiments, the demands of so much decision-making quickly become too much for us. After about 40 minutes of shopping, most people stop struggling to be rationally selective, and instead begin shopping emotionally --which is the point at which we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff in our cart that we never intended buying.


Section  Writing

Part A

Directions: Suppose you won a translation contest and your friend, Jack, wrote an email to congratulate you and ask for advice on translation. Write him a reply to

1)  thank him, and

2)   give your advice.

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name Use “Li Ming” instead.

Do not write your address. (10 points)

Part B

Directions: Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing ,you should

1) interpret the chat, and

2) give your comments.










阅读文章中出现了多年没有考到的环境保护方面的文章,并出现先了生态栖息地这类比较生僻的单词,对于考试有一定的挑战, 并且,正确答案和原文的同义改写较多,但大部分是细节题,定位到文章中的某句时,排除法会更加的方便,20道题目中考察了1道主旨题,1道例证题,1道含义题,1道非典型推理题,其他均为细节题。可见,细节题再次被证明是考试成功的关键!








Section I   Use of English

1-5BBDCD  6-10CAACA  11-15ABBBC  16-20DACDD

Section II  Reading Comprehension



第一篇:高中生为什么要提早学习电脑编程,出自2015514日的The Atlantic, 原文题为The Economic Importance of Teaching Coding to Teens



21. 细节题 B remodel the way of thinking


22. 细节题 A interest


23. 细节题 D help students learn other computer languages

答案出处:第五段最后一句,Deborah Seehorn所在的句子

24. 细节题 C become better prepared for the digitalized word


25. 含义题:B persuade



第二篇:美国濒危鸟类保护方案,原文出自2015619日的Science,原文题为Last Dance?- An urgent effort to save the West’s iconic lesser prairie chicken could point the way to a truce in other endangered-spices battles



26. 细节题B its drastically deceased population


27. 细节题C granted less federal regulatory power

答案出处:第二段第5”threaten tag”定位到的句子

28. 细节题D promise to raise funds for USFWS operation


29. 细节题 D the states


30. “sb. Would support”非典型推理题 C environmental groups



第三篇:如何找到阅读时间,出自201543日的The Guardian, 原文题为How to find time to read

31. 细节题 D what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed


32. 例证题 B make passing time fulfilling

33. 细节题 D achieve immersive reading

34. 细节题 A reading becomes your primary business of the day

35. 主旨题 C How to Find Time to Read


第四篇:美国青年一代更难安身立命,出自2015611日的The Atlantic, 原文题为 Even Baby Boomers Think It’s Harder to Get Started Than It Used to Be



36. 细节题 A having a family with children

37. 细节题 C attach importance to pre-marital finance


38. 细节题B reach almost all aspects of American life


39. 细节题 D getting established is harder for the young


40. 细节题 B His parents’ good life has little to do with a college degree



Part B

文章出处:2015127The Guardian 原文题为 Act Your Shoe Size, Not Your Age

41-45 DFAGE (蓝色字体为答案出处)